Data Centers

Starting from OrientDB Enterprise Edition v2.2.4, you can define how your servers are deployed in multiple Data Centers.

Studio-Data-Centers

All you need is to use the tag "dataCenters" in your default-distributed-config.json configuration file. This is the format:

  "dataCenters": {
    "<data-center1-name>": {
      "writeQuorum": "<data-center1-quorum>",
      "servers": [ "<data-center1-server1>", "<data-center1-server2>", "<data-center1-serverN>" ]
    },
    "<data-center2-name>": {
      "writeQuorum": "<data-center2-quorum>",
      "servers": [ "<data-center2-server1>", "<data-center2-server2>", "<data-center2-serverN>" ]
    },
  },

NOTE: This feature is available only in the OrientDB Enterprise Edition. If you are interested in a commercial license look at OrientDB Subscription Packages.

Example:

  "dataCenters": {
    "usa": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "<austin>", "<paloalto>", "<newyork>" ]
    },
    "europe": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "<rome>", "<dublin>", "<london>" ]
    },
    "asia": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "<tokyo>", "<singapore>", "<hongkong>" ]
    }
  },

DC

Write Quorum

The most common reason for defining data centers is to be able to set the consistency level per data center. A typical scenario is to have synchronous replication between the servers in the same data center where the coordinator server is located and then to propagate changes to the other data centers asynchronously. In this way you can avoid the cost of the replication latency of the servers located at different data centers. In order to activate this mode, set the global "writeQuorum": "localDataCenter" and then specify a writeQuorum per data center.

For example, if a write operation is executed by a server where its data center's write quorum setting is majority, then the used quorum will be majority between only the servers located in the same data center.

Example about the configuration of 2 data centers, "rome" and "austin", with respectively 3 and 2 servers.

{
  "autoDeploy": true,
  "readQuorum": 1,
  "writeQuorum": "localDataCenter",
  "readYourWrites": true,
  "dataCenters": {
    "rome": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "europe-0", "europe-1", "europe-2" ]
    },
    "austin": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "usa-0", "usa-1" ]
    }
  },
  "servers": { "*": "master" },
  "clusters": {
    "internal": {},
    "*": { "servers": [ "<NEW_NODE>" ] }
  }
}

If a write operation is executed on the server "europe-0", the quorum used will be majority, but only between the servers located in the same data center: namely "europe-0" (the coordinator), "europe-1", and "europe-2". Since the coordinator writes in the database before distributing the operation, the write operation succeeds as soon as at least one other local server ("europe-1" or "europe-2") responds with the same result. The rest of the replication to the other data centers will be executed asynchronously.

Consistency

Since multiple data centers can have a local quorum, it is possible to have Eventual Consistency between them. It's always suggested to keep the number of servers odd, so you can, eventually, always be consistent. Example of 2 data centers with an equal number of servers:

  "dataCenters": {
    "rome": {
      "writeQuorum": "all",
      "servers": [ "europe-0", "europe-1", "europe-2" ]
    },
    "austin": {
      "writeQuorum": "all",
      "servers": [ "usa-0", "usa-1", "usa-2" ]
    }

In this case if an UPDATE operation is executed by the server "usa-0" (the coordinator), it will reach the quorum only if all the servers in the "austin" data center provide the same result. Let's say the result for all these 2 servers was 5 (in the UPDATE operation the result is the updated version of the record). But what happens if all the other 3 servers in "rome" return the version 6? You have no majority in this case (3 against 3), so the coordinator cannot establish who is the winner. The database become inconsistent.

In order to automatically manage conflicts, the suggested configuration is always to keep an odd number of servers whether you use multiple data centers or not.

Conflict Resolution Policy

In OrientDB Enterprise Edition the additional dc Conflict Resolution Strategy is supported to let to a configured data center to always win in case of conflict. To use this strategy in the conflict resolution chain, append dc at the chain by overwriting the global setting distributed.conflictResolverRepairerChain. Example:

-Ddistributed.conflictResolverRepairerChain=majority,content,version,dc{winner:asia}

Note the configuration passed in curly brackets {winner:asia} containing the name of the data center that will be the winner in case no winner has been found in the chain.

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