Data Centers

Starting from OrientDB Enterprise Edition v2.2.4, you can define how your servers are deployed in multiple Data Centers.

Studio-Data-Centers

All you need is using the tag "dataCenters" in your default-distributed-config.json configuration file. This is the format:

  "dataCenters": {
    "<data-center1-name>": {
      "writeQuorum": "<data-center1-quorum>",
      "servers": [ "<data-center1-server1>", "<data-center1-server2>", "<data-center1-serverN>" ]
    },
    "<data-center2-name>": {
      "writeQuorum": "<data-center2-quorum>",
      "servers": [ "<data-center2-server1>", "<data-center2-server2>", "<data-center2-serverN>" ]
    },
  },

NOTE: This feature is available only in the OrientDB Enterprise Edition. If you are interested in a commercial license look at OrientDB Subscription Packages.

Example:

  "dataCenters": {
    "usa": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "<austin>", "<paloalto>", "<newyork>" ]
    },
    "europe": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "<rome>", "<dublin>", "<london>" ]
    },
    "asia": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "<tokio>", "<singapore>", "<hongkong>" ]
    }
  },

DC

Write Quorum

The most common reason why defining data centers is a good idea is the possibility of defining the consistency at data center level. A typical scenario is having a synchronous replication between the servers in the same data center where the coordinator server is located and then propagate changes to the other data centers in asynchronous way. In this way you can avoid the cost of the latency of the replication to the servers located on different data centers. In order to activate this mode, set the global "writeQuorum": "localDataCenter" and then specify a writeQuorum per data center.

For example, if a write operation is executed by a server where its data center's write quorum setting is majority, then the used quorum will be majority between only the servers located in the same data center.

Example about the configuration of 2 data centers, "rome" and "austin", with rispectively 3 and 2 servers.

{
  "autoDeploy": true,
  "readQuorum": 1,
  "writeQuorum": "localDataCenter",
  "readYourWrites": true,
  "dataCenters": {
    "rome": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "europe-0", "europe-1", "europe-2" ]
    },
    "austin": {
      "writeQuorum": "majority",
      "servers": [ "usa-0", "usa-1" ]
    }
  },
  "servers": { "*": "master" },
  "clusters": {
    "internal": {},
    "*": { "servers": [ "<NEW_NODE>" ] }
  }
}

If a write operation is executed on the server "europe-0", the quorum used will be majority, but only between the servers locates in the same data center: namely "europe-0" (the coordinator), "europe-1" and "europe-2". Since the coordinator writes in the database before to distribute the operation, the write operation succeed as soon as at least one between the "europe-1" and "europe-2" servers provide the same result as with "europe-0". The rest of the replication will be executed in background in asycnhronous way.

Consistency

Since multiple data centers can have a local quorum, it is possible having an Eventual Consistency between them. It's always suggested to keep the number of servers odd, so you can, eventually, always be consistent. Example of 2 data centers with equal number of servers:

  "dataCenters": {
    "rome": {
      "writeQuorum": "all",
      "servers": [ "europe-0", "europe-1", "europe-2" ]
    },
    "austin": {
      "writeQuorum": "all",
      "servers": [ "usa-0", "usa-1", "usa-2" ]
    }

In this case if an UPDATE operation is executed by the server "usa-0" (the coordinator), it will reach the quorum only if all the servers in the "austin" data center provide the same result. Let's say the result for all these 2 servers was 5 (in the UPDATE operation the result is the updated version of the record). But what happens if all the other 3 servers in "rome" return the version 6? You have no majority in this case (3 against 3), so the coordinator cannot establish who is the winner. The database become inconsistent.

In order to automatically manage conflicts, the suggested configuration is always to keep an odd number of servers if you have or not data centers.

Conflict Resolution Policy

In case of even number of servers, a Conflict Resolution Policy has to be defined. This is not yet available, but it's in our roadmap.

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