When you run distributed on multiple servers, you could face on a drop of performance you got with single node. While it's normal that replication has a cost, there are many ways to improve performance on distributed configuration:
- Use transactions
- Replication vs Sharding
- Use few MASTER and many REPLICA servers
- Scale up on writes
- Scale up on reads
- Replication vs Sharding
Active the load balancing to distribute the load across multiple nodes.
Even though when you update graphs you should always work in transactions, OrientDB allows also to work outside of them. Common cases are read-only queries or massive and non concurrent operations can be restored in case of failure. When you run on distributed configuration, using transactions helps to reduce latency. This is because the distributed operation happens only at commit time. Distributing one big operation is much efficient than transferring small multiple operations, because the latency.
OrientDB distributed configuration is set to full replication. Having multiple nodes with the very same copy of database is important for HA and scale reads. In facts, each server is independent on executing reads and queries. If you have 10 server nodes, the read throughput is 10x.
With writes it's the opposite: having multiple nodes with full replication slows down operations if the replication is synchronous. In this case Sharding the database across multiple nodes allows you to scale up writes, because only a subset of nodes are involved on write. Furthermore you could have a database bigger than one server node HD.
Starting from v2.2, the biggest advantage of having many REPLICA servers is that they don't concur in the
writeQuorum, so if you have 3 MASTER servers and 100 REPLICA servers, every write operation will be replicated across 103 servers, but the majority of the writeQuorum would be just 2, because given N/2+1, N is the number of MASTER servers. In this case after the operation is executed locally, the server coordinator of the write operation has to wait only for one more MASTER server.
For more information look at Server roles.
If you have a slow network and you have a synchronous (default) replication, you could pay the cost of latency. In facts when OrientDB runs synchronously, it waits at least for the
writeQuorum. This means that if the
writeQuorum is 3 ("majority"), and you have 5 nodes, the coordinator server node (where the distributed operation is started) has to wait for the answer from at least 3 nodes in order to provide the answer to the client.
In order to maintain the consistency, the
writeQuorum should be set to the majority (the default setting), defined as N/2+1, where N is the number of MASTER servers. If you have 5 nodes the majority is 3. With 4 nodes is still 3. Setting the
writeQuorum to 3 instead of 4 or 5 allows to reduce the latency cost and still maintain the consistency.
To speed up things, you can setup Asynchronous Replication to remove the latency bottleneck. In this case the coordinator server node execute the operation locally and gives the answer to the client. The entire replication will be in background. In case the quorum is not reached, the changes will be rollbacked transparently.
If you already set the
writeQuorum to the majority to the nodes, you can leave the
readQuorum to 1 (the default). This speeds up all the reads.