Indexes

OrientDB supports four index algorithms:

  • SB-Tree Index Provides a good mix of features available from other index types, good for general use. It is durable, transactional and supports range queries. It is the default index type.
  • Hash Index Provides fast lookup and is very light on disk usage. It is durable and transactional, but does not support range queries. It works like a HashMap, which makes it faster on punctual lookups and it consumes less resources than other index types.
  • Auto Sharding Index Provides an implementation of a DHT. It is durable and transactional, but does not support range queries. (Since v2.2)
  • Lucene Full Text Index Provides good full-text indexes, but cannot be used to index other types. It is durable, transactional and supports range queries.
  • Lucene Spatial Index Provides good spatial indexes, but cannot be used to index other types. It is durable, transactional and supports range queries.

Understanding Indexes

OrientDB can handle indexes in the same manner as classes, using the SQL language and prefixing the name with index: followed by the index name. An index is like a class with two properties:

  • key The index key.
  • rid The Record ID, which points to the record associated with the key.

Index Target

OrientDB can use two methods to update indexes:

  • Automatic Where the index is bound to schema properties. (For example, User.id.) If you have a schema-less database and you want to create an automatic index, then you need to create the class and the property before using the index.

  • Manual Where the index is handled by the application developer, using the Java API and SQL commands (see below). You can use them as Persistent Maps, where the entry's value are the records pointed to by the index.

You can rebuild automatic indexes using the REBUILD INDEX command.

Index Types

When you create an index, you create it as one of several available algorithm types. Once you create an index, you cannot change its type. OrientDB supports four index algorithms and several types within each. You also have the option of using any third-party index algorithms available through plugins.

  • SB-Tree Algorithm
    • UNIQUE These indexes do not allow duplicate keys. For composite indexes, this refers to the uniqueness of the composite keys.
    • NOTUNIQUE These indexes allow duplicate keys.
    • FULLTEXT These indexes are based on any single word of text. You can use them in queries through the CONTAINSTEXT operator.
    • DICTIONARY These indexes are similar to those that use UNIQUE, but in the case of duplicate keys, they replaces the existing record with the new record.
  • HashIndex Algorithm
    • UNIQUE_HASH_INDEX These indexes do not allow duplicate keys. For composite indexes, this refers to the uniqueness of the composite keys. Available since version 1.5.x.
    • NOTUNIQUE_HASH_INDEX These indexes allow duplicate keys. Available since version 1.5.x.
    • FULLTEXT_HASH_INDEX These indexes are based on any single word of text. You can use them in queries through the CONTAINSTEXT operator. Available since version 1.5.x.
    • DICTIONARY_HASH_INDEX These indexes are similar to those that use UNIQUE_HASH_INDEX, but in cases of duplicate keys, they replaces the existing record with the new record. Available since version 1.5.x.
  • HashIndex Algorithm (Since v2.2)
    • UNIQUE_HASH_INDEX These indexes do not allow duplicate keys. For composite indexes, this refers to the uniqueness of the composite keys.
    • NOTUNIQUE_HASH_INDEX These indexes allow duplicate keys.
    • Lucene Engine
    • FULLTEXT These indexes use the Lucene engine to index string content. You can use them in queries with the LUCENE operator.
    • SPATIAL These indexes use the Lucene engine to index geospatial coordinates.

Every database has a default manual index type DICTIONARY, which uses strings as keys. You may find this useful in handling the root records of trees and graphs, and handling singleton records in configurations.

Indexes and Null Values

Starting from v2.2, Indexes do not ignore NULL values, but they are indexes as any other values. This means that if you have a UNIQUE index, you cannot have multiple NULL keys. This applies only to the new indexes, opening a database with indexes previously created, will all ignore NULL by default.

To create an index that expressly ignore nulls (like the default with v2.1 and earlier), look at the following examples by using SQL or Java API.

SQL:

orientdb> CREATE INDEX addresses ON Employee (address) NOTUNIQUE METADATA {ignoreNullValues: true}

And Java API:

schema.getClass("Employee").getProperty("address").createIndex(OClass.INDEX_TYPE.NOTUNIQUE, new ODocument().field("ignoreNullValues",true));

Indexes and Composite Keys

Operations that work with indexes also work with indexes formed from composite keys. By its nature, a composite key is a collection of values, so, syntactically, it is a collection.

For example, consider a case where you have a class Book, indexed by three fields: author, title and publicationYear. You might use the following query to look up an individual book:

orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:books WHERE key = ["Donald Knuth", "The Art of Computer
          Programming", 1968]

Alternatively, you can look for books over a range of years with the field publicationYear:

orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:books WHERE key BETWEEN ["Donald Knuth", "The Art of 
          Computer Programming", 1960] AND ["Donald Knuth", "The Art of Computer 
          Programming", 2000]

Partial Match Searches

Occasionally, you may need to search an index record by several fields of its composite key. In these partial match searches, the remaining fields with undefined values can match any value in the result.

Only use composite indexes for partial match searches when the declared fields in the composite index are used from left to right. For instance, from the example above searching only title wouldn't work with a composite index, since title is the second value. But, you could use it when searching author and title.

For example, consider a case where you don't care when the books in your database were published. This allows you to use a somewhat different query, to return all books with the same author and title, but from any publication year.

orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:books WHERE key = ["Donald Knuth", "The Art of Computer 
          Programming"]

In the event that you also don't know the title of the work you want, you can further reduce it to only search all books with the same author.

orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:books WHERE key = ["Donald Knuth"]

Or, the equal,

orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:books WHERE key = "Donald Knuth"

Range Queries

Not all the indexes support range queries (check above). In the case of range queries, the field subject to the range must be the last one, (that is, the one on the far right). For example,

orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:books WHERE key BETWEEN ["Donald Knuth", "The Art of 
          Computer Programming", 1900] AND ["Donald Knuth", "The Art of Computer 
          Programming", 2014]

Operations against Indexes

Once you have a good understanding of the theoretical side of what indexes are and some of basic concepts that go into their use, it's time to consider the practical aspects of creating and using indexes with your application.

Creating Indexes

When you have created the relevant classes that you want to index, create the index. To create an automatic index, bound to a schema property, use the ON section or use the name in the <class>.<property> notation.

Syntax:

CREATE INDEX <name> [ON <class-name> (prop-names)] <type> [<key-type>]
                    [METADATA {<metadata>}]
  • <name> Provides the logical name for the index. You can also use the <class.property> notation to create an automatic index bound to a schema property. In this case, for <class> use the class of the schema and <property> the property created in the class.

    Bear in mind that this means case index names cannot contain the period (.) symbol, as OrientDB would interpret the text after as a property.

  • <class-name> Provides the name of the class that you are creating the automatic index to index. This class must already exist in the database.

  • <prop-names> Provides a comma-separated list of properties, which you want the automatic index to index. These properties must already exist in the schema.

    If the property belongs to one of the Map types, (such as LINKMAP, or EMBEDDEDMAP), you can specify the keys or values to use in generating indexes. You can do this with the BY KEY or BY VALUE expressions, if nothing is specified, these keys are used during index creation.

  • <type> Provides the algorithm and type of index that you want to create. For information on the supported index types, see Index Types.

  • <key-type> Provides the optional key type. With automatic indexes, the key type OrientDB automatically determines the key type by reading the target schema property where the index is created. With manual indexes, if not specified, OrientDB automatically determines the key type at run-time, during the first insertion by reading the type of the class.

  • <metadata> Provides a JSON representation

Examples:

  • Creating custom indexes, deprecated since 3.0:

    orientdb> CREATE INDEX mostRecentRecords UNIQUE date
    
  • Creating another index for the property id of the class User:

    orientdb> CREATE PROPERTY User.id BINARY
    orientdb> CREATE INDEX indexForId ON User (id) UNIQUE
    
  • Creating indexes for property thumbs on class Movie:

    orientdb> CREATE INDEX thumbsAuthor ON Movie (thumbs) UNIQUE
    orientdb> CREATE INDEX thumbsAuthor ON Movie (thumbs BY KEY) UNIQUE
    orientdb> CREATE INDEX thumbsValue on Movie (thumbs BY VALUE) UNIQUE
    
  • Creating composite indexes:

    orientdb> CREATE PROPERTY Book.author STRING
    orientdb> CREATE PROPERTY Book.title STRING
    orientdb> CREATE PROPERTY Book.publicationYears EMBEDDEDLIST INTEGER
    orientdb> CREATE INDEX books ON Book (author, title, publicationYears) UNIQUE
    

For more information on creating indexes, see the CREATE INDEX command.

Dropping Indexes

In the event that you have an index that you no longer want to use, you can drop it from the database. This operation does not remove linked records.

Syntax:

DROP INDEX <name>
  • <name> provides the name of the index you want to drop.

For more information on dropping indexes, see the DROP INDEX command.

Querying Indexes

When you have an index created and in use, you can query records in the index using the SELECT command.

Syntax:

SELECT FROM INDEX:<index-name> WHERE key = <key>

Example:

  • Selecting from the index dictionary where the key matches to Luke:

    orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:dictionary WHERE key='Luke'
    

Case-insensitive Matching with Indexes

In the event that you would like the index to use case-insensitive matching, set the COLLATE attribute of the indexed properties to ci. For instance,

orientdb> CREATE INDEX OUser.name ON OUser (name COLLATE ci) UNIQUE

Inserting Index Entries

You can insert new entries into the index using the key and rid pairings.

Syntax:

INSERT INTO INDEX:<index-name> (key,rid) VALUES (<key>,<rid>)

Example:

  • Inserting the key Luke and Record ID #10:4 into the index dictionary:

    orientdb> INSERT INTO INDEX:dictionary (key, rid) VALUES ('Luke', #10:4)
    

Querying Index Ranges

In addition to querying single results from the index, you can also query a range of results between minimum and maximum values. Bear in mind that not all index types support this operation.

Syntax:

SELECT FROM INDEX:<index-name> WHERE key BETWEEN <min> AND <max>

Example:

  • Querying from the index coordinates and range between 10.3 and 10.7:

    orientdb> SELECT FROM INDEX:coordinates WHERE key BETWEEN 10.3 AND 10.7
    

Removing Index Entries

You can delete entries by passing the key and rid values. This operation returns TRUE if the removal was successful and FALSE if the entry wasn't found.

Syntax:

DELETE FROM INDEX:<index-name> WHERE key = <key> AND rid = <rid>

Example:

  • Removing an entry from the index dictionary:

    orientdb> DELETE FROM INDEX:dictionary WHERE key = 'Luke' AND rid = #10:4
    

Removing Index Entries by Key

You can delete all entries from the index through the requested key.

Syntax:

DELETE FROM INDEX:<index-name> WHERE key = <key>

Example:

  • Delete entries from the index addressbook whee the key matches to Luke:

    orientdb> DELETE FROM INDEX:addressbook WHERE key = 'Luke'
    

Removing Index Entries by RID

You can remove all index entries to a particular record by its record ID.

Syntax:

DELETE FROM INDEX:<index-name> WHERE rid = <rid>

Example:

  • Removing entries from index dictionary tied to the record ID #10:4:

    orientdb> DELETE FROM INDEX:dictionary WHERE rid = #10:4
    

Counting Index Entries

To see the number of entries in a given index, you can use the COUNT() function.

Syntax:

SELECT COUNT(*) AS size FROM INDEX:<index-name>

Example:

  • Counting the entries on the index dictionary:

    orientdb> SELECT COUNT(*) AS size FROM INDEX:dictionary
    

Querying Keys from Indexes

You can query all keys in an index using the SELECT command.

Syntax:

SELECT key FROM INDEX:<index-name>

Example:

  • Querying the keys in the index dictionary:

    orientdb> SELECT key FROM INDEX:dictionary
    

Querying Index Entries

You can query for all entries on an index as key and rid pairs.

Syntax:

SELECT key, value FROM INDEX:<index-name>

Example:

  • Querying the key/rid pairs from the index dictionary:

    orientdb> SELECT key, value FROM INDEX:dictionary
    

Clearing Indexes

Remove all entries from an index. After running this command, the index is empty.

Syntax:

DELETE FROM INDEX:<index-name>

Example:

  • Removing all entries from the index dictionary:

    orientdb> DELETE FROM INDEX:dictionary
    

Query the available indexes

To access to the indexes, you can use SQL.

Create your index engine

Here you can find a guide how to create a custom index engine.

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