Incremental Backup and Restore

(Since v2.2 - Enteprise Edition only)

An incremental backup generates smaller backup files by storing only the delta between two versions of the database. This is useful when you execute a backup on a regular basis and you want to avoid having to back up the entire database each time. The easiest way to execute a backup and a restore is using Studio.

NOTE: This feature is available only in the OrientDB Enterprise Edition. If you are interested in a commercial license look at OrientDB Subscription Packages.

NOTE: Lucene Indexes are not supported yet in the incremental backup/restore process. Once the incremental restore is finished the indexes rebuild is necessary see (here)[]

See also

How does it work?

Every time a backup is executed, OrientDB writes a file named last-backup.json in the database directory. This is an example of the content:

  "lsn": 8438432,
  "startedOn": "2015-08-17 10:33:23.943",
  "completedOn": "2015-08-17 10:33:45.121"

The most important information is the lsn field that is the WAL LSN (Last Serial Number). Thanks to this number, OrientDB is able to understand the last change in the database, so the next incremental backup will be done starting from last lsn + 1.

Executing an Incremental Backup

Incremental Backup via Console

Backup Database console command accepts -incremental as an optional parameter to execute an incremental backup. In this case the new backup is executed from the last backup (file last-backup.json is read if present). If this is the first incremental backup, a full backup is executed. Example:

orientdb> connect plocal:/databases/mydb admin admin
orientdb {db=Whisky}> backup database /tmp/backup -incremental

The incremental backup setting also allows you to specify an LSN version to start with. Example:

orientdb> connect plocal:/databases/mydb admin admin
orientdb {db=Whisky}> backup database /tmp/backup -incremental=93222

Incremental Backup via Java API

You can perform an incremental backup via the Java API too.

NOTE The remote protocol is supported, but the specified path is relative to the server.

If you are managing an ODocumentDatabase you have to call the incrementalBackup() method that accepts a String path parameter to the backup directory:

ODatabaseDocumentTx documentDatabase = new ODatabaseDocumentTx(dbURL);"root", "password");

If you are using the OrientGraph interface you have to get the raw graph before calling the incrementalBackup() method:

OrientGraph graphDatabase = new OrientGraphNoTx(dbURL);"root", "password");

Executing an Incremental Restore

Incremental Restore via the Console

Restore Database console command automatically recognizes if a backup contains incremental data. Restoring an incremental backup creates a new database with the restored content. You cannot perform an in-place incremental restore on an existing database. The execution of the create database command with the option -restore builds a fresh database and performs the incremental restore starting from the backup path.


orientdb> create database remote:localhost/mydb root root plocal graph -restore=/tmp/backup

Creating database [remote:localhost/mydb] using the storage type [plocal]...
Connecting to database [remote:localhost/mydb] with user 'admin'...OK

Database created successfully.

Current database is: remote:localhost/mydb

Incremental Restore via the Java API

You can perform an incremental restore via the Java API too. To create a database from an incremental backup you can call from Java ODatabase#create(path-to-incremental-backup-directory).

Incremental Restore in Distributed Architecture

The incremental restore affects only the local node where the restore command is executed.
Let's suppose we have 3 nodes and we execute an incremental restore on node1. If we execute an incremental restore on node1 a new fresh database is created on all the 3 nodes, but only on node1 the restore procedure is performed. Thus we obtain the database correctly restored on node1 but an empty database on node2 and node 3.
You can overcome this inconsistency by executing a shutdown on all the nodes of the cluster not involved in the restore procedure (node2 and node3 in our example), so once restarted they will get the full database from node1.

Distributed Architecture

The incremental backup is used in the Distributed Architecture when a server node restarts. This avoids having to backup and tranfer the entire database across the network.


File Format

In case of incremental backup, the content of the zip file is not the database directory, but rather meta files needed to update the database with the delta. Example of the content:

- Employee.pcl
- Person.pcl.incremental
- Person.pcm.incremental

This means only three files are changed. Employee.pcl is a full file, while the other two files with extension ".incremental" are incremental. Incremental files contain all the page changes and have the following format:

| (long)         | byte[]          |

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